Water treatment is the removal of contaminants from wastewater. The process converts the water into a cleaner effluent that is recycled for various purposes. Businesses, households, and pre-treated industrial generate wastewater that requires decontamination before disposal or reuse. Here are a few reasons why wastewater treatment systems are important.
Treatment facilities are essential in speeding up the process of removing effluents from wastewater. This removal is usually a natural process, but the excessiveness of wastewater overloads natural purification processes. For example, rapid population growth causes a significant increase in the amount of domestic wastewater. This wastewater becomes an environmental disaster if it is left untreated. Therefore, most nations, cities, and households install wastewater treatment systems to keep the earth safe and clean.
Modern-day cities cannot rely on direct discharge and drainage of sewage and runoff water. For example, raw sewage on the streets would make them inhabitable. Modern-day runoff and wastewater contain oil, mud, industrial wastes, sewage, and other contaminants that inconvenience city residents.
Properly treated water can be reused. Wastewater treatment plants remove contaminants that make water harmful. For example, the presence of sewage and silt in water prevents its reuse in cleaning. Similarly, water with oil and heavy metal contaminants is harmful for household use. The treatment process ensures that water never goes to waste. Water is a rare commodity in most cities, and treatment processes help in preventing outright disposal.
Anaerobic digestion in wastewater treatment plants generates heat and electricity. The organic materials in wastewater are broken down to generate methane gas. This gas is essential in the production of electricity and heat at the wastewater treatment systems. Modern-day wastewater treatment systems generate sufficient electricity that runs the plant and may be injected into the electric grid to supplement other power sources. This trend is highly encouraging and shows progress towards sustainable wastewater management and electric generation.
Wastewater treatment systems encourage research and development. The innovative processes currently used in wastewater management come from years of research and creativity. This research aids the industry and other sectors of the economy. Some of the most reliable innovations include microbial fuel cells, futuristic separator materials, reduced spacing between cathodes and anodes, and evolved microbes. The power density achieved using such concepts is essential in generating new forms of power generation using water and organic materials.
Wastewater treatment systems are essential for environmental conservation. These systems are convenient for cities and households. Wastewater treatment also helps conserve water by making it safe for reuse. These systems are also important drivers of innovation with significant promising technological developments emerging from research based on wastewater management.